Technologies

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Ebara Engineering Review No.186

Amenities Provided by Photons and Electrons - Amenities for Humans as well as for Food Preservation and Semiconductor Wafer Manufacturing -

by Toshiaki FUJII, Kazuhiko SAKAMOTO, Shin YOKOYAMA, & Shoji YAMAZAKI

The following discusses the application of photon and electronic techniques which can provide amenities for humans, as well as for increased convenience in food preservation and semiconductor wafer manufacturing. Combined usage of photons and electrons enables a clean and non-malodorous space for human beings, disinfection and preservation of foods, and control of gaseous matter and oxidation in clean rooms for semiconductor wafer manufacturing. There are so many possibilities of using such techniques in various fields of application. Research on photon and electronic techniques is much looked forward to.

Keywords
Amenity, Photon, Electron, Comfortable environment, Human body, Food, Wafer, Negative ion, UV/photoelectron method

Boiler System for High-efficiency Power Generation Utilizing Heat from MSW Incinerators

by Makoto SHIZUMA, Makoto SASAKI, Katsuji KOSAKA, Kiyoshi SUZUKI, Yoshinobu URAKAMI, Yoji SATO, Kei MIYOSHI, Manabu NOGUCHI, Teruaki TSUKAMOTO, & Tetsuji IGUCHI

The following introduces EBARA's 3.92 Mpa (abs)*400°Cboiler system, the largest of its kind in Japan, installed in a high efficiency power generation system which utilizes heat from MSW incinerators. In particular, the three super heaters of the boiler system features high corrosion-resistance, a fact verified through analyses conducted after 23 months of actual boiler operation. The durability of these super heaters was initially determined as five years but it is expected this figure will be surpassed significantly. All in all, the stable operation of the boiler system is greatly contributing to zero emission, power recovery, and a saving in running cost of the incineration plant where it is used.

Keywords
Highly effective power generation, Dioxins, Auto combustion control, Super-heater

Measures Against Dioxin Emissions at MSW Incinerators

by Makoto SHIZUMA, Makoto SASAKI, Toshiro AMEMIYA, Osamu FUTAMURA, Yoji SATO, Teruaki TSUKAMOTO, Toru KAWAKAMI, Shigeru ASAI, Kiyoyuki SAKURAI, & Kaoru YAMAZAKI

The following discusses measures against dioxin emissions at MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) incinerators. Various techniques and systems developed by EBARA are outlined, including an introduction on the control over total dioxin emission at actual incineration facilities.

Keywords
Dioxins, Municipal solid waste, Incinerator, Bag filter, Solid catalyst reactor, Thermal cracking, Ash melting, Total dioxin emssion

Application of Magnetic Bearings for Semiconductor Manufacturing

by Toshiharu NAKAZAWA, Ichiju SATOH, & Hiroyuki SHINOZAKI

The following discusses general aspects on the application of magnetic bearings for semiconductor manufacturing. Such bearings are fit for use in higher integration, microfabrication environments and they have non-contact, non-oil, non-particle, and low vibration features. EBARA's accumulated know-how on turbomolecular pumps is greatly contributing in the development of these magnetic bearings. Trends, demands, and topics regarding practicalization are introduced as well.

Keywords
Magnetic bearing, Turbo-molecular pump, Can, Semiconductor, Particle, Contamination, Non-contact, Vibration

RCP Series Absorption Chiller-Heater

by Hiroki NAKAMURA

EBARA has released into the market its RCP Series Absorption Chiller-Heater, as a replacement for the RAP series whose production had been started in 1992. The new series features a compact plate heat exchanger which has improved the cooling cycle (COP=1.01), thus achieving higher efficiency and reliability. A low NOx, proportional control burner (12A & 13A) is used in the gas burning type. The main control components are used conjointly with the high performance large-scale RCD. The plate heat exchanger also works to minimize the amount of absorbent solution inside the system, thus achieving shorter startup and minimized dilution. The series comprises 40-135 USRt types, including an cooling tower integrated type and a super-capacity, large-scale type with high heating performance.

Keywords
Plate heat exchanger, Absorption chiller-heater, Part load, Inverter, Microcomputer control panel

Newly Developed Screw-type, Dry Vacuum Pump

by Kiyoshi YANAGISAWA, Takeshi KAWAMURA, & Tokio FUKAI

EBARA's new screw-type, dry vacuum pump, developed for use in semiconductor and LCD panel manufacturing processes, has been released into the market. This high-performance pump is exceptionally sturdy, corrosion-resistant, and capable of pumping out by-product constituents of process gases. Moreover, the pump configuration itself works to minimize the production of by-products inside the pump. Field tests have confirmed that this pump is capable of continuous operation exceeding one year, as compared to the case of a conventional pump which can only be run continuously for several months under identical conditions. The monitoring and control of this pump is computerized and various sensors equipped on the pump give warnings of minor as well as major pump operation irregularities. An optional RS232C-RS485 converter enables the pump operation to be monitored/controlled through a LAN.

Keywords
Screw, Dry vacuum pump, Semiconductor, L.C.D, By-product, Roots type, D.C. brush-less motor, Blow hole

Waste Gas Treatment System by Combustion

by Kohtaro KAWAMURA, Takeshi TSUJI, Rikiya NAKAMURA, Kazutaka OKUDA, Keiichi ISHIKAWA, Tomonori OHHASHI, & Hiroyuki TAKENAKA

The following introduces a new, extremely compact waste gas treatment system. Treatment is done in a combustor (oxidation-degradation), in primary and secondary cooling sections (gas & particle removal), as well as in a fan scrubber (particle removal). This cost-effective system, capable of simultaneously decomposing and removing hazardous waste gases (including PFCs) and particles, is fit for use in the manufacturing processes of semiconductors and liquid crystal display panels.

Keywords
Par-fluoro compounds, PFCs gas, Combustion, Main burner, Particle removal, Rotatory air, Preliminary mixed fuel gas, Ceramic inner tube, Primary cooling section, Secondary cooling section, Fan-scrubber system

Emergency Drain Pump Trucks

by Hideki KANNO, Shuichiro HONDA, Keiji KATO, Takeshi KAMEI, Takashi SUGAYA, Masahiro KURAMASU, Masaaki IMAFUKU, & Keisuke OGIWARA

Emergency drain-pump trucks, named Drain Pump Patrols, have been newly developed to prevent flood due to localized torrents. Each truck is equipped with either of drainage pumps, each with different specifications. The pumps are driven either by submersible motors or hydraulic turbines. The pump systems mounted on the trucks are lightweight and with high capacity. This Drain Pump Patrol Truck series is ideal for quick deployment to potential flood areas.

Keywords
Emergency drainage pump truck, Flood, Power take off equipment, Engine driven generator, 48 hour continuous operation, Lightweight pump, Package type, Motor driven pump, Turbine driven pump, Float

A Batch-type, Municipal Waste Fluidized-bed Incineration System

by Hirofumi IWAHASHI, Eiji YAGUCHI, Takanobu MIYAKI, Shigenori TAKAHASHI, & Gakuji KUMISAWA

EBARA's batch type, municipal waste fluidized-bed incineration system has been in operation at a municipal waste incineration plant in Okayama, Japan. This system uses two incinerators capable of incinerating 50 tons of municipal waste a day (8-hour operation). As this system features batch-type, fluidized-bed incinerators, stable incineration time is elongated and the carbon monoxide concentration is kept low. Another big feature is that dioxin emission is controlled by activated carbon treatment in the flue gas line.

Keywords
Fluidized-bed, Municipal waste incinerator, Batch type, Carbon monocide concentration

FUJISAWA Plant No.2 Power Station

by Akira USUI, Toshiaki MIYASHITA, Hideaki FUEKI, Kazunori YAMASHITA, Yukio HOSONO, & Takahiro KAWACHI

An IPP Power Station was designed and built at EBARA's Fujisawa Plant. Named Fujisawa Plant No. 2 Power Station, this facility is a combined cycle power plant comprising an FT-8 gas turbine system, a foreign-made HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) system, a steam turbine system, and an air-cooled condenser system. The main fuel the gas turbine uses is city gas, but kerosene is used for the winter months. The total output of the power station is 66.7 MW and it's contracted annual usage is 30%. Accordingly, a DSS (Daily Start & Stop) operation is applied. The power station's startup time, from the startup of the gas turbine to a 100% power generation condition, is about fifty minutes.

Keywords
Independent power producer, Combined cycle, Gas turbine, Twin-pac, Heat recovery steam generator, Daily start and stop, Startup period, Environmental regulation

A New Type Computerized Central Control System

by Seiji Nagai

A new type computerized central control system has been designed, developed and is currently in operation at a night soil treatment plant. This system also features the monitoring of the entire plant using a 100 inch (50 inches*4 screens) multivision projected screen, which replaces the conventional control panel. A personal computer DCS, an ITV system, laptop and desk top computers with 15-inch LCD displays are networked for totalized control. A total of five cameras constantly monitor the smoke stack, the weight scale, the pump room, and the conveyor robot. Further research is being carried out to enable this system to be capable of a WAN function for more remote monitoring and control.

Keywords
100 inch multimedia projector, Data logging system, Liquid crystal display, Wide area network

Selection of Sliding Bearings for Centrifugal Pumps

by Yoshikazu KIMURA

This report discusses the selection and application factors of various type sliding bearings for centrifugal pumps. Included are discussions on thrusts in the radial and axial directions and their control. Some characteristics of sliding bearings used on actual pumps, methods of selecting such bearings, as well as characteristics and effects of both oil lubricated and process-fluid lubricated bearings, are outlined. The importance of implementing optimal bearing design in accordance to demand is pointed out. Emphasis is also given that bearings must be developed which would enable pumps to have resource saving, energy saving, high performance, and high reliability features.

Keywords
Pump, Sliding bearing, Static characteristics, Dynamic characteristics, Oil lubrication, Process fluid lubrication, Sommerfeld number, Vertical pump, General-purpose high-speed pump