Technologies

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Ebara Engineering Review No.188

Probing the High-Temperature Sulfidation-Corrosion Behavior of the FCC Power Recovery Turbine

by Hiroshi YAKUWA, Norio TAKAHASHI, Matsuho MIYASAKA, Shuhei NAKAHAMA, Masamichi KAWASAKI, & Toshio NARITA

The sulfidation behavior of a nickel-base superalloy, AISI685 or Waspaloy, used as a rotor material of the FCC power recovery turbine (gas expander), was investigated in N2-H2-H2S atmospheres between 673 and 873K, under stressed and unstressed conditions. Significant grain-boundary sulfidation, progressing along the alloy grain-boundaries, was observed under stressed conditions at 873K. The time dependence of the grain-boundary penetration depth followed a rate which was almost parabolic. No significant grain-boundary penetrations were observed below 773K for 345.6ks even under the stress of 588MPa.

Keywords
FCC power recovery turbine, Sulfidation corrosion, Waspaloy, Nickel-base superalloy, Grain-boundary sulfidation, Hydrogen-sulfide, Nickel, Chromium, Gas expander

Field Test of Methane Fermentation System for Treating Animal Wastes

by Naoaki KATAOKA, Takayuki SUZUKI, Yoshirou SUZUKI, Kenichi ISHIDA, Norio YAMADA, & Katsuo HONDA

A methane fermentation system for treating animal wastes was developed and substantiated successfully in a field test plant (0.5 m3/d). The system is composed of a screw-press dehydrator, an acidification digester, a methanogenic digester, an anaerobic sludge separator, an oxidation ditch, and a composting equipment. Pretreatment of swine wastes to remove the solid impurities was carried out using the screw-press dehydrator without chemical grouting. TS and CODCr removal by the screw-press treatment was 38% and 22%, respectively. Properties of the screenings were as follows: water content 57%, ignition loss 93%, specific gravity 0.33. Main ingredients of the screenings were undigested organics and swine bristles. The pretreated strong slurry (CODCr 9.0%, BOD 3.0%, TS 5.5%, T-N 0.48%) was digested under mesophilic conditions ; HRT of 15.4 d ; volumetric organic loading rate of 4.4~4.8 kg CODCr/m3·d. It was found that CODCr and BOD removal at 35°C was 64% and 78%, respectively; digestion gas production rate was 25 m3/m3-slurry (NTP); methane content of the digestion gas was 67%. The effluent from the methanogenic digester was separated into supernatant and thickened sludge in the anaerobic sludge separator and subsequently treated using the oxidation ditch and the screw-press dehydrator. The oxidation ditch for treating the supernatant was controlled by intermittent aeration for the purpose of nitrogen removal. The quality of effluent from the oxidation ditch (>20°C) was BOD 90 mg/l, CODCr 360 mg/l, SS 40 mg/l, and T-N 220 mg/l. However, organic colored substances (dark-brown) remained in the effluent. The thickened sludge was dehydrated using the same screw-press dehydrator as mentioned above. Polymer feeding rate was 0.5% to TS. Water content of the dehydrated cake was 77.5%. Mixture of the screenings and the dehydrated cake was composted without bulking agents. It was confirmed that the present system is applicable to treatment of animal wastes.

Keywords
Swine waste,Methane fermentation,Oxidation ditch,Compost,Screw-press dehydrator

The Development of the CALS IETM System - Scope of Net Business Application -

by Toshio HARA, Hiroshi ITO, Yoshiaki MAGOME, & Shinya HIKOSAKA

The CALS IETM (Interactive Electronic Technical Manual) System supports various engineering documents prepared and used throughout a product's life cycle, including those for its manufacturing process. The system also provides sectored support among different corporations, as well as among in-house divisions of one corporation. Its capabilities include document creation using electronic and interactive IT technologies, reuse and shared use of engineering document contents. The primary development targets of the system, geared to be used for the industrial machinery and plant engineering industries, were: decreasing the volume of technical documents, cutting down costs, and minimizing the time spent for creating, sharing, and reusing technical documents. Network business models, functions, and capabilities of the system, as well as development and feasibility study results are outlined in the following. The system was developed under a contract concluded with MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry), as part of the Heisei 10th Fiscal Year Government Supplementary Budget Project. This project was carried out by a consortium made up of Nippon Gear Co., Ltd., Nihon Unysis Ltd., and EBARA CORPORATION.

Keywords
CALS, IETM, CALS IETM, Engineering document, Life cycle, Vertical communication, Horizontal communication, XML, EDI, Net business

Hydraulic Simulation System for Pump Operation Control

by Hiroshige TAKANO, Hideki TANAKA, Akira SASAKI, & Hisateru IDE

A new hydraulic simulation system for pump operation control and hydraulic analysis, by which FLEIA (Flow Estimating Modules by Implicit Analysis) is integrated, had been developed for facilitating transient analysis of hydraulic systems equipped with pumps, valves, gates, etc. The system's main features are: 1) Easy setup of computation models, including additions, modifications, and deletions, 2) Short calculation time even under extensive time intervals, 3) Calculation under various conditions, such as for open and closed conduits, from dry to full flow, and 4) Simultaneous visual display of operational conditions, such as of pumps and other equipment, as well as of the water flow in conduits. The new system is expected to contribute greatly in improving the planning and designing work of drainage pump facilities and their management.

Keywords
Pump operation control, Hydraulic analysis, Simulation system, Implicit analysis, Preissmann's scheme, Open channel, Closed conduit, Underground river, Graphic display, Pumping facility

Development of a Bearing Wear Detector for a Canned Motor Pump

by Yukio SOTOYAMA, Shinobu ISHIZUKA, Tomotoshi HIRATA, Takahisa SEKINO, Takahiko OGAWA, Takayuki KURONUMA, Hironori NINOMIYA, Zheng DAI, & Tomoyuki YAMAZAKI

One technically difficult problem in the development of canned motor pumps is the practicalization of a highly reliable, low-cost bearing wear detector. Such a detector has been released into the market for use with EBARA's Model SXH canned motor pump. This reusable detector is outlined in the following.

Keywords
Bearing wear detector, Canned motor pump, High reliability, Low cost, Re-use, Friction bearing, Maintenance, Explosion proof, Low-pass filter, High-pass filter

The Development of an Improved-throughput, Clean Chemical Mechanical Polishing System

by Fumio KOBAYASHI, Tetsuji TOGAWA, & Kunihiko SAKURAI

A new improved-throughput Clean CMP system, the F☆REX 200, has been added to EBARA's lineup of CMP systems. This reliable and stable system, features high productivity and flexibility. The system's development concepts, functions, and characteristics of each module are introduced in the following.

Keywords
CMP, DRY-IN·DRY-OUT, Throughput, Polish, Cleaning, Process Monitor, SEMI S2/S8, CE, Raw Process Time, ITRS, Mini-Environment

Large-scale Runoff Rainwater Pumping Station

by Takahiro ASAMIZU

A large-scale runoff rainwater pumping station has been constructed as a measure against floods in Osaka. The primary function of this pump station is to pump water collecting in the Naniwa Great Diversion Channel into the Sumiyoshi River. The greatest features of this pump station is that it uses a unprecedented circular configuration and also that it uses the largest-scale drainage pump in Japan, installed at a depth of 30 meters.

Keywords
Drainage pumping station, Vertical volute pump, Hydraulic coupling, Pump dry run, Speed control, The Naniwa Great Diversion Channel

The "Gaikaku Housuiro" Drainage Pump Station -Second Report: Structural Design of RC Pump Casings -

by Michiko ISHIDA, Tetsuo TAKABE, Shinya HIBINO, Morihito KANZAWA, & Shuichi OGAWA

The structural design of pump casings for the Gaikaku Housuiro Pump Station, the largest of its kind in Japan, was complex as it involved large capacity and high head features. Accordingly, a highly reliable design method, which considers complex 3D structure and load distribution, was required. Consequently, a new program for computing the structual design of RC pump casing was developed. This program computes the required area of each pump casing member, as well as for studying concrete stress. This program is based on the limit state design method and uses configurational and element force data from FEM analysis. This program was put to use effectively for the design of pump casings used in the Gaikaku Housuiro Drainage Pump Station. The result was an optimal reinforcement design which enabled a high degree of reliability and safety.

Keywords
A new program for computing the structual design of RC pump casing, The limit state design method, Configurational and element force data from FEM analysis,Optimal reinforcement design

Multi-purpose Pumping Stations for the North-Chiba Water Conveyance Project

by Toshinobu SETOH, Kouji ABE, & Yoshihiro UCHIDA

EBARA has designed, produced, and installed pump equipment for two multi-purpose pumping stations as part of the North-Chiba Water Conveyance Project, a 20-year project just completed whose objective lies in minimizing water pollution and establishing a water source. The total length of the waterway built in this large-scale project extends 30 kilometers. The following, the first report of a series, introduces specific pumping problems that had to be solved, as well as coordinated pumping operation by the two stations, flow rate control, and measures against water hammer effects. The topics discussed are flow rate control for maintaining the level of a closed portion of the waterway to be below the standard dam discharge level, operation conditions involving pump head fluctuation caused by the amount of water conveyance, water hammer prevention using one-way surge tanks (tank area: about 250m2), and pumping conditions when the set level of the one-way surge tanks is higher than the discharge level.

Keywords
Water conveyance project, Coordinated control, Water pollution, Water purifacation, Lake flushing, Lake-Tega, Water hammer, One-way surge tank, Capacity control, Speed control

Field Irrigation Control System for General Examination Site of the Upland Crops and Horticulture Branch, Miyazaki Prefecture

by Takafumi KOGUCHI

The present system for field irrigation control comprises a water valve system, instrumentation devices, a power control panel, an electric panel, and a central control system for management of the overall facility. The central control system, located in the management building, enables users to monitor and control all operations in the facility viewing a CRT display. The main feature of this system is that pumps and valves are operated automatically according to an input schedule (amount of water supply, start of irrigation water release, etc.), thus achieving labor saving in irrigation studies. Irrigation schedules and research data on farmland management are gathered and stored in a database, thus enabling the fast retrieval of such data for analysis and practicalizing the management of research data.

Keywords
Optimization of water supply, Labor saving in irrigation research, Practical use of research data, Prevention of water interference, Automatic schedule control, Concentrated monitoring and operation, Database of field data, Central control system, Pump equipment, Field irrigation

Rice Growing Test Facility for Maintaining Constant Temperature by Chiller - Akita Agricultural Experiment Station -

by Nobuyoshi SATOU, Masao TAKEUCHI, Satoru ARAKI, Akira MITSUNAMI, & Kyosuke KIKUTA

An unprecedented rice growing test facility for maintaining constant temperature by chiller was installed in May 2000 at the Agricultural Test Facility, Akita Prefecture. This facility is now being used for testing and developing new rice species capable of withstanding cold summer climates. Chilled water from the chiller system is used to water rice paddies to test the vulnerability of specific rice species to moderately chilled conditions (18°C~19°C).

Keywords
Agricultural test facility, Chiller, Constant temperature control, Damage by cold weather, Improvement of species, Akita Prefecture, Promotion of agriculture