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Ebara Engineering Review No.195

Turbomachinery Blade Optimization by 3-Dimensional Inverse Design Method - 1st Report, Theory and Application to Pumps -

by Akira GOTO, Hideomi HARADA, Mehrdad ZANGENEH

A 3-dimensional inverse design method for optimizing turbomachinery blades has been developed. Optimal blade shapes for specified optimal flow fields are numerically designed according to the inverse design theory, while 3-dimensional flows inside turbomachinery are numerically analyzed making use of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The main features of this method are: a) easy control of 3-dimensional flows fields, b) significant high performance attributed to a logical approach, c) applicability of obtained data on optimal blade loading to the design of other similar cases, d) systematic design for the development of a turbomachinery series, and e) easy acquisition of stored digital data on designing know-how. This 1st report discusses the basics of the 3-dimensional inverse method and introduces its effectiveness verified in both numerical and experimental terms in a case where the method was used for the design of blades for a mixed-flow diffuser pump.

Inverse Design, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Optimization, Blade Design, Turbomachinery, Diffuser Pump, Blade Loading

Evaluation of Pump Seal and Bearing Characteristics by a Rotor Dynamic Test Stand with Active Magnetic Bearings

by Masato EGUCHI, & Yoshiyuki MARUTA

A rotor dynamic test stand equipped with active magnetic bearings was developed for evaluating fluid reaction forces on annular pressure seals and bearings. The magnetic bearings enable control of eccentricity and whirl radius of rotors towards the seal center, thus making it possible to measure dynamic properties under totally non-contact conditions. Consequently, small fluid reaction forces of annular grooved seals can be measured with precision. Such favorable measurement conditions also make it possible to conduct experiments on hydrodynamic tones from annular grooved seals. Leakage velocities through narrow seal clearances and fluid film dynamics can be measured by this test stand and the data effectively used for boosting pump performance and vibration prevention. Experimental results on basic cavity noise characteristics and the mechanism are discussed, as well as properties that need to be estimated prior to determining the design of pump rotors.

Active magnetic bearing, Rotordynamics, Pump seal, Leakage, Fluid reaction force, Cavity tone

Evaluation of Estrogen-like Activity Using Recombinant Yeast in Wastewater

by Kensuke ONDA, Akiko MIYA, Yosei KATSU, & Toshihiro TANAKA

Evaluation was done at various wastewater treatment plants for investigating the behavior of estrogenic substances using an in vitro recombinant yeast assay. The total estrogen-like activities, expressed in 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents, found in the influents were:0.099 µg·L-1 for sewage, 4.0 µg·L-1 for livestock facility drainage, and 0.099 µg·L-1 for landfill leachate. The findings indicated that 17β-estradiol (E2; analyzed by EIA) contributed to estrogen-like activity (analyzed by the yeast assay) in influents and treated effluents of sewage and livestock facility drainage. As for the landfill leachate, there was indication that bisphenol A had significantly contributed to estrogen-like activity. Concentrations in activities (analyzed by the yeast assay) in some sewage influents were found to considerably exceed that of E2, suggesting the presence of unknown estrogenic substances. The yeast assay was found to be appropriate as a comprehensive evaluation method for measuring estrogenic substances in environmental samples.

Bioassay, Reporter gene assay, Endocrine disruptors, Environmental hormone, Estrogen-like activity, 17β-estradiol, Wastewater treatment, Sewage, Landfill leachate, Livestock facility drainage

A Demonstration Test of a Sludge Pelletization and Carbonization Plant

by Yasuhide ISHIKAWA, Norio YAMADA, Yasuhide NISHIO, Ippei SHIMAZAKI, & Takeshi KATAYAMA

R&D of a sludge pelletization and carbonization plant had been in progress since 1998. This plant comprises a rotary kiln and a sludge drier/pelletizer. A demonstration test has been recently carried out to verify that carbonized sludge pellets output from the plant could be effectively used as soil supplementary material. Test results were positive and established that this newly developed sludge pelletization and carbonation plant was worthy for treating and reusing organic sludge.

Carbonization, Pelletization, Sludge, Drier, Rotary kiln, Soil supplementary material

PEFC Co-generation System Field Trial

by Noboru MAKITA, Kazuki KUDO, Keizou HOSHIJIMA, Masashi HIRANO, Hideo IZUMI, Mikio MASUMOTO, & Akihiro KITAZAWA

A two-year field performance test is underway for a co-generation system which features the use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (250 kW; connected to a 3.3 kV commercial power source). The low temperature (74°C) exhaust heat, a feature of PEFCs (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells), is used as a heat source for EBARA's exclusively designed low temperature absorption chiller for cooling. Test results are indicating that the power generation efficiency is 34% of the design value (LHV conversion). In overall efficiency, including the heat exhaust, 76% has been achieved, surpassing the design value. Some modification have been made with considerations given to optimal matching between the exhaust heat versus the absorption chiller, as well as to the adaptability during peak cut operations. Testing is being continued to establish improvement in running costs and maintenance.

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, Co-generation, Hot water driven absorption chiller, Reformer, Peak cut operation

Plant Control Engineering Tools EBALIUS

by Ryo FUJII, & Wataru SUGAWARA

The EBALIUS (EBAra control LogIc Unified System) is a comprehensive CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) control system, currently being developed for controlling the design of EBARA incineration systems. The development of its drawing function has been recently completed and is now being tested. Once completed, the EBALIUS will enable cost-effective and cost-efficient designing, taking into account the planning, shipment, and commissioning, of incineration systems. Design data stored in the system's database will be able to be retrieved and applied for the design of various type control systems.

CAE (Computer Aided Engineering), Concurrent engineering, Object oriented software technology, Object oriented database, Relational database, Client/server system, DCS (Distributed Control System), P&ID (Pipings And Instruments Diagram), CAD (Computer Aided Design)

EBARA's Facility Data Management System

by Satoshi INOUE, & Manabu ASADA

EBARA's Facility Data Management system is a network database system for the overall management of operation and maintenance of facilities. Various basic operational data, including maintenance and control data, are stored in the database to be processed, analyzed, shared and applied. This system also supports the life-cycle of facilities, from the planning stage to construction and inspection, and allows data access and input through palm-held computer terminals.

Facility management, Operation and maintenance, Information Technology, Data communication, Life-cycle support, Database, Network, Client server system, World-Wide-Web browser, Facility data

A Concept of an Integrated Core System for Business Process Chain Management based on ERP

by Kazuhiro ESAKI, Kiyoshi KOBAYASHI, Toyomi NISHI, Yoshinori NAGAI

Synergetic and other effects by an integrated core system for business chain management based on ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) have been studied. This system is designed to include not only order reception, procurement and manufacturing, but also product development, design, product life cycle support, field support and reception of repeat orders. The following discusses this global business information processing system on a conceptual basis.

Business process re-engineering, Enterprise resource planning, Integrated business process chain management model, Material resource planning, Business model, Design concept, Customer relationship management, Product data management system, Lifecycle support

Water Management & Control System for Drainage Pumps and Watergates

by Naoki NAITOH, Tooru SHIBANO, & Misako MATSUMOTO

EBARA's Water Management & Control System for Drainage and Watergates enables a combined and swift operation of small-scale water drainage station networks to cope with flood situations. This computerized system links various facilities and sites by an fiber optic network, thus making it possible for remote monitoring and control, as well as data processing and management of an entire regional drainage network. This system is now being actually operated by Japan's Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.

Water management & control system, Web server, Optical transmission system, Handy terminal, Web browser, Facility management

Pump Equipment for Shanxi Province-Wanjiazhai Yellow River Diversion Project in China

by Shanxi Province-Wanjiazhai Yellow River Diversion Project Team

The combined operation of EBARA pumps, 1 per each of the 5 pumping stations, has been demonstrated successfully at Shanxi Province in China. The fact that the pump stations have to be operated in series required relatively high-level specifications. Therefore, pump and structural characteristics, including water conveyance transient phenomena, were studied intensively and optimal solutions had been worked out. In particular, effective hard facing material and structural methods were applied after conducting various tests using the sand and silt of the Yellow River. This was done to establish preventive and recovery measures against abrasion by the highly concentrated sand and silt in the Yellow River. Various techniques were also schemed to allow swift pump disassembly and assembly for countering such abrasion. Although the completion of the project, including the installation of 10 more pump units, is expected to be at the end of this year, the major technical problems have already been successfully tackled.

China, Wanjiazhai, Vertical centrifugal volute, Steel plate fabrication type, Indoor fully exposed, Sand erosion, Inverse design method, High velocity oxy-fuel, Transient phenomenon analysis, Pump support measure