Technologies

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Ebara Engineering Review No.208

Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance for Creep Damage Assessment in 2.25 Cr-1Mo Steels - Part Ⅱ

by Toshihiro OHTANI

Micro-structural evolution of 2.25 Cr-1Mo steels, subjected to tensile creep damage at 923 K, was studied by monitoring shear-wave attenuation and velocity using electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR). This was based on an observation that monitoring of micro-structural changes in the bulk of high sensitivity metals can be done by following non-contact transduction based on magneto-strictive mechanism. The study revealed an attenuation peak, independent of applied stress, at short intervals, 50% to 60% of creep life. This novel phenomenon was interpreted as a drastic change in dislocation mobility and rearrangement, an observation supported by a TEM study on dislocation structure. A dense dislocation structure started to transform into sub-grain boundaries during the occurrence of this phenomenon, temporally accompanying long, free dislocation and absorbing a great amount of ultrasonic energy in producing an attenuation peak. Study results suggested that the use EMAR carried the potential to assess the progress of creep damage and to predict remaining creep life of metals.

Keywords
Creep damage, Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance (EMAR), Dislocation damping, Ultrasonic attenuation, Noncontact evaluation, 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel

Development of Packaged Auxiliary Booster System for Home-use

by Chikara MAKINO, Masahito KAWAI, & Ryota MIKI

A new packaged auxiliary booster system for home-use has been developed. This system, a product certified by the Japan Waterworks Association, is designed to backup the supply of tap water by a booster pump to tap water outlets on the second and third floors of homes. Its pump unit features a variable-speed pump for shallow wells, previously released into the market. Estimated constant end-pressure control by an inverter realizes energy conservation and noise reduction. The booster pump does not turn on when the water supply pressure in the supply line is maintained above the rated value. In such case the water becomes supplied under normal pressure in the water main, via a bypass line between the suction and discharge side of the booster pump.

Keywords
Packaged auxiliary booster system, Bypass, Reverse flow, Protection function, Low suction pressure, Chattering, Excessive frequency of starting

RFW Series Absorption Chiller

by Jun AOYAMA

The RFW Series Absorption Chiller is a steam-driven, double-effect absorption chiller developed in line with the market demand for high efficiency chillers. The RFW Series features the world's highest level steam consumption rate of 3.5 kg/h·USRt) under rated operations, thus enabling a reduction of about 20% in steam consumption when compared with that by conventional chillers. The control panel of this series comprises a sequencer including computer mother board and an LCD touch panel, both of which are used in EBARA's most advanced turbo-chiller. This made it possible to unify the graphic user interface (GUI) of the RFW Series absorption chiller and turbo chiller. A control program exclusively developed for the RFW Series is enabling improved functions, such as controllability and preventive maintenance, compared to those of conventional chillers.

Keywords
Absorption chiller, High efficiency, Steam consumption, Microcomputer control panel

An Energy-saving Advanced Wastewater Treatment Verification-Test Plant including Excess Sludge Reduction and Phosphorus Recovery being demonstrated at EXPO 2005 Aichi Japan

by Kiyomi ARAKAWA, Terunobu SUYAMA, Akira ICHIHARA, & Toshihiro TANAKA

A demonstration of an advanced wastewater treatment plant is underway at the EXPO 2005 site as the final phase of NEDOOs (New Energy and industrial Technology Development Organization) Energy-saving Wastewater Treatment Technology Development Project. The processes at this plant include biological treatment consisting of ozonation for sludge reduction and phosphorus removal, advanced treatment by advanced oxidation, and advanced treatment by ozonation. The following article introduces the principles of biological treatment process, ozonation for sludge reduction and phosphorus removal, developed by the authors, as well as the verification-test plant.

Keywords
Sludge reduction, Ozone, Phosphorus recovery, Anaerobic-anoxic-oxidation process, Biological phosphorus removal, Biological nitrogen removal, Hydroxy apatite phosphate, BOD removal, Experimental facility, EXPO 2005 AICHI JAPAN

Photovoltaic Power Generation System for Hyogo Arts & Culture Association

by Masaru KOJIMA, Yuji EGAWA, & Tetsuo UCHIDA

EBARA's large-scale, grid-connected, photovoltaic power generation system had been installed at Hyogo Arts & Culture Association, Hyogo Prefecture. Compared to conventional such systems for industrial use, which are typically 10-30 kW in capacity, this system features an amazing total capacity of 214 kW (160 kW from rooftop and 54 kW from wall mounted photovoltaic modules). The power generated from the modules is transformed into AC power by rooftop power conditioners. An incoming panel in the basement power reception room supplies power for firefighting and security within the facility. The system's the grid-connected design allows excess power generated by the system to be sold to the local electric company.

Keywords
Photovoltaic power generation, Photovoltaic (PV) module, Power conditioner, Solar irradiation, Array, Multi crystal (poly crystal), Grid-connected, Data collecting device, Solar simulator, Shadow cover rate

Biomass Power Plant - ICFB for Nakoso Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. -

by Keisuke TSUKAMOTO, Shigeharu WATANABE, & Eiji ISHIKAWA

bara's biomass power plant, featuring an ICFB (Internal Circulation Fluidized-bed Boiler), is now operating in Nakoso Mill, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd. The fuel used for the boiler is mainly wood waste produced at this plant. Construction began in April 2004 and completed within the set schedule in August 2004. This biomass power plant, highly reliable and capable of speedy compliance to load conditions, constitutes a single main boiler unit for supplying power for the entire mill as well as process steam. Prior to the introduction of this biomass power plant the power and steam used at this mill were supplied by a heavy fuel oil burning boiler and a diesel oil power generator. The annual heavy fuel oil consumption had been 34000 kl. The biomass power plant is not only achieving a 98% saving in fuel but also a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emission deriving from fossil fuel combustion (about 10 thousand tons per year).

Keywords
Fluidized-bed boiler, Power plant, Biomass, Thermal recycle, Carbon dioxide reduction, Wood waste, Coal, Steam turbine, Nippon Paper Industries Co., Ltd.

Introduction of International Standardization of Technology for Software Quality Evaluation based on the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7

by Kazuhiro ESAKI

The ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commision) JTC1/SC7 (Joint Technical Committee 1/Sub-Committee Seven) has since the early 80's been involved in the research and development for software quality evaluation as well as standardization, a field which until then had been virtually unknown versus computer hardware. The following outlines international standardization activities, including those that affect EBARA, introduces the newest trends in this field, and discusses the importance of standardization technology for software products.

Keywords
IT: Information technology, ISO: International Organization for Standardization, IEC: International Electrotechnical Commision, IS: International Standard, CD: Committee draft, SQuaRE: Software quality requirements and evaluation, Quality measure, Quality requirements specification, TR: Technical report, NP: New proposal