Technologies

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Ebara Engineering Review No.226

Technology for Pressurizing and Transporting CO2

by Hideki KANNO, Shigeru YOSHIKAWA, Naoyuki INOUE, & Yoshiro FUKASAKU

CO2 for CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is at about atmospheric pressure when recovered and needs to be pressurized by compressor, taking into account underground pressure and pressure resistance in the line of passage. An investigation done by simulation revealed that an optimally energy saving operation can be done by compressing CO2 to 5.0 - 5.5 MPa and condensing it, furthermore pressurizing the CO2 by an injection pump. The following outlines the turbomachinery used for this process, namely a refrigerating machine for supplying cooling water for CO2 condensation, and discusses the performance of a large-scale CO2 gas compressor, as well as of an injection pump for CO2 pressurization.

Keywords
CCS, Compressor, Refrigerator, Pump, Liquefaction, p-h diagram, Specific enthalpy, Acid gas, Super critical, Power saving

Trends in the Technology of Steam Turbines for the Ethylene Market - Meeting High Capacity Requirements -

by Akihito TODA

Ethylene plants are recently becoming large sized and their mainstay output 1 million tons annually. Elliott Ebara's capability to manufacture both compressors and steam turbines is meeting high capacity needs for the ethylene market. The following introduces and discusses trends in our next-generation compressors and steam turbines currently being developed.

Keywords
Ethylene, High capacity, High temperature, High pressure, Double shell, Casing, Diaphragm, Rotating bucket, Governor valve, Mechanical drive

A Fire-fighting Pump Unit for Social Welfare Facilities

by Kazumi OHKANDA

A fire-fighting pump unit, integrated with an auxiliary tank, has been developed for sprinkler systems of social welfare facilities. This pump unit (Model FSDFS) features compactness, achieved by positioning the pump under the auxiliary tank, and outdoor applicability, achieved by equipping an outdoor cover. Four types of pumps can be used with 3 different sized FRP auxiliary tanks, namely with a capacity of 1.0 m3, 1.5 m3 and 4.0 m3, matching specific discharge rates. The unit can be started up automatically by a diaphragm type small-sized pressure tank and pressure switch. It can also be started up manually by a remote switch. The unit's main components constitute many proven conventional ones, and include a Model FSD single-side suction centrifugal pump, a Model EPM2 control panel, and an FA2-25 flow meter.

Keywords
Fire fighting pump, Social welfare facilities, Fire fighting low, Sprinkler, Auxiliary tank, Centrifugal pump, Direct driven motor pump, Outdoor installation

Engineering, Procurement, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of an ICFB which uses Biomass Fuel - Gonoike Biomass Power Plant -

by Teruyasu OKAMOTO, Kyoji HASHIMOTO, Hirokazu KAJIWARA, & Motohiro KOBAYASHI

Japan's largest biomass-burning power plant has been operating under a stable condition for over 1 year. EBARA has been involved in the engineering, procurement and construction of this plant; following the commissioning test, we are also involved in the operation and maintenance. The ICFB (Internally Circulating Fluidized-bed Boiler) used in this plant, while featuring conventional specifications, uses biomass as fuel. Its structure is made more simple than conventional boilers at incineration plants. That and a low air ratio operation is achieving high efficiency and low running cost. Three types of biomass fuel is used at the Gonoike Biomass Power Plant, namely tree bark, saw dust and planer dust. A total of 3 fuel supply sources enable a backup operation in case one source fails or stops. Following the commissioning. The ICFB has operated for 350 days during a period of 1 year.

Keywords
Fluidized-bed boiler, Biomass, Power plant, Engineering, Procurement, Construction, Operation, Maintenance, Dioxins, Bark, Saw dust, Planer dust

Biomass Power Plant for Sumitomo Osaka Cement Tochigi Factory

by Yuichi IIDA, Takeshi MIYATAKE, Kenji SUGAWARA, & Yuichi NAKAMURA

A resource and energy conserving, high-efficiency biomass power plant has been delivered to the Tochigi Factory of Sumitomo Osaka Cement Co., Ltd. The main fuel for the boiler is wood chips. Coal and rubber tire chips are also used as supplements. Type of the boiler is ICFB (Internal Circulating Fluidized-bed Boiler), which maximum continuous rating is 105 t/h, while its rated power output is 25 MW. Its power generation efficiency is 32%, a high figure for biomass power plant. This high efficiency is achieved by: high-temperature, high-pressure steam conditions; the use of an in-bed superheater; the use of a high-pressure feed water heater; use of a water-cooled condenser. Following the commissioning, this power plant has been operating for 167 days since a scheduled inspection carried out in May, 2009. Usually a power output is 24 MW during daytime, and during the night, power output is controlled according to the factory load demand.

Keywords
Internal circulating fluidized-bed boiler, Biomass, Steam turbine, Generating power efficiency, Boiler efficiency, Wood chip, Renewable energy, In-bed super heater

Biomass Conversion Plant

by Ryoji TSUKUI

A biomass conversion plant, located in Joetsu, Niigata Prefecture, capable of treating composite biomass and producing biomass products for various effective use, has started operation since October 2009. Biogas generated during methane fermentation of food wastes, as well as wood from tree thinning of forests, is put to use as fuel for drying sewage sludge, and the dried sludge used as cement material. Part of the wood from thinning is molded and made into pellet-form fuel. As such, this plant effectively converts biomass wastes into biomass energy. Favorable feedback is being reported on its continued operation.

Keywords
Biomass, Food wastes, Methane fermentation, Compound treatment, Effective use, Sewage sludge, Woody pellet, Unused, Biogas